The climatic zones of Canada are separated as follows:
- northern coniferous forests (taiga) and
- temperate zone (warm to hot summers and cold winters with snow)
The following factors also have an influence on the climate in Canada:
- the northern location in the moderate to arctic latitudes
- the temperature and current conditions of the oceans at the borders
- the continental landmass and the land surface formation of the country
In the eastern part of Canada a continental climate is predominantly. Short, dry, hot summers and long, very cold winters are characteristic for this. From south to north the summers get shorter and the winters longer.
The mountain ridges running in a north-south direction also determine the climatic zones of canada. In Winter, arctic cold air masses therefore can reach from the North to the far South. Freezing temperatures as far as Florida are not unusual. In Summer, on the other hand, humid hot air masses can move unhindered from the south to the north.
The Labrador Current moves cold water along the coast far to the south and has a negative impact on temperatures. As a result, temperatures are significantly lower than in the same latitudes of Europe.
In the region of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, the continental climate is mitigated by the influences of the large water bodies. As a consequence, precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year.
Canada East Climate Diagrams
The diagrams only show the average temperatures. In Winter, minus 40° C are quite possible, but in summer, temperatures can exceed 35° C. Sometimes there is also high humidity with muggy heat. In the Indian Summer the daytime temperatures are pleasantly mild. The nights are cool with first frosts at night. In the winter months, persistent snowfalls alternate with sunny high pressure conditions.
The data are taken from records of the last 30 years.